Albanian occupies its own branch of the Indo-European language family and has no close relatives. As a demonstration: the English word “mother” has similarities and roots in most Indo-European languages: Latin (mater), Irish (máthair), Lithuanian (motina), French (mère), Spanish (madre), Italian (mama), Hindi (mātā) etc., which all have the meaning “mother”. The Albanian “motër” means “sister”. “Nënë” is the word for mother.
There are two main dialects: Gheg, spoken north of the Shkumbin River, and Tosk, south of the same river. Standard Albanian is based on the Tosk dialect and is also the official language of Kosovo and some municipalities of the Republic of Macedonia.
The language has been written with many scripts including the Greek alphabet, Arabic script and Cyrillic – with Latin being used currently.
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